Written expression is one of the most challenging tasks for children to learn. Students who experience difficulties in acquiring fluent and efficient writing skills may struggle to generate ideas, construct meaningful sentences, sequence and organise their ideas into paragraphs, and use grammar appropriately. These students may also have difficulty with handwriting, punctuation and spelling. Furthermore, writing requires knowledge of text genres, text cohesion and coherence, and a sense of audience. Any weaknesses in oral language expression are likely to transfer to written work as it is very rare for someone to be able to write material they are unable to say.

Explicit instruction of component skills is likely to lead to more effective instruction and learning. When all of the component skills are fluent, written language skills (comprehenison and expression) should be a reflection of a student's ability to use spoken language.

Linked to Oral Language
Effective written expression teaching should emphasise the link between oral and written language
Linked to Reading Comprehension
What students are able to express in writing is dependent on what they are exposed to and understand when reading: therefore, reading comprehension and written expression should be taught as reciprocal processes.
Linked to the Purpose of Writing
Instruction should emphasise the purpose of writing - to communicate meaning or information - and students should be taught how to convey their intended meaning using tools such as language patterns, text structures and grammar.
Start with sentences
Students need to be taught to write simple, grammatically correct sentences before learning to write compound and complex sentences.

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